Create a book Download as PDF Printable version. The impact of the extra tonne of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere must then be converted to the equivalent impacts when the tonne of carbon dioxide was emitted. Potential effects and issues. Energy-intensive industries used to benefit from preferential rates under this tax but the benefit was cancelled in January Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Department of Energy DOEEnergy Information Administration EIA.
Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. Reserves, production, prices, trxding ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and sydtem. Comprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections integrated across all energy emissions trading system korea. Monthly and yearly energy forecasts, analysis of energy topics, financial analysis, Congressional reports.
Financial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies. Greenhouse gas data, voluntary report- ing, electric power plant emissions. For Teachers What is Energy? In the International Energy Outlook IEO Reference case, world energy-related CO2 emissions [ ] increase from The Reference case estimates do not include effects of the recently finalized Clean Power Plan CPP regulations in the United States, which reduce projected U.
Much of the growth in emissions is attributed to developing nations outside the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECDmany of which continue to rely heavily on fossil fuels to meet the fast-paced growth of energy demand. In the IEO Reference case, non-OECD emissions in total In comparison, OECD emissions total EIA has tried to incorporate some of the specific details, such as renewable energy goals, in the IEO Reference case; however, a great deal of uncertainty remains with regard to the implementation of policies to meet stated goals.
In addition, beyond energy-related CO2, other gases e. EIA's projections systtem CO2 emissions may change significantly as laws and policies aimed at reducing GHG emissions are implemented and enforced, or if existing laws are enhanced. The United States and China are the countries with tgading most energy-related carbon dioxide CO2 emissions. Inboth countries announced their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions INDCs to the mitigation emisslons their respective GHG emissions.
It remains unclear, however, whether either country will meet or exceed its emissions trading system korea target. Further efforts to reduce GHG tradnig were discussed at the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change COP21held in Paris November 30 through December 12, [ ]. EIA will continue to assess the targets resulting from COP21 for inclusion in future analyses. China's INDC states the objective of peaking its CO2 emissions by about while making best efforts to achieve an earlier peak.
In addition, in SeptemberChina announced systme intent to expand the country's seven current regional emissions trading programs in to a national cap-and-trade program beginning inalthough specific emissions caps and other policy details have not yet been announced. China surpassed the United States as the world's. In its CO2 emissions per capita were about one-third of the U. Two of the largest sources of U. For emiwsions, the main mechanism to reduce emissions is increasing the stringency of fuel economy and GHG emissions standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy trucks.
For electric power, the U. Environmental Protection Agency EPA has finalized a Clean Power Plan CPP aimed at significantly reducing CO2 emissions from existing fossil-fueled generators. In China, the ultimate achievement of systen targets will depend on emissios need to balance environmental goals with economic sysrem and development. China is still industrializing, and its energy needs will grow despite slowing economic growth and a shift to less energy-intensive industries.
Emissions trading system korea its total CO2 emissions are to peak nearcoal consumption will have to stop growing, and perhaps decline substantially, between and unless carbon capture and storage CCS technology, which is a relatively new technology, is rapidly adopted. Energy-related CO2 emissions from the use of liquid fuels, natural gas, and coal all increase in the IEO Reference case, with the relative contributions of the individual fuels shifting over time Figure Coal, which is the most carbon-intensive fossil fuel, became the leading source of world energy-related CO2 emissions traringand it remains the leading source through in the Reference case.
If fossil fuels had kept the same share in the Reference case, they would have increased from quadrillion Btu in to quadrillion Btu by In the OECD countries, liquids-related CO2 emissions decline by an average of 0. In the non-OECD countries, rising demand for transportation and industrial uses of liquid fuels contributes to a growth rate of 1. In the IEO Reference case, world coal-related CO2 emissions show slower growth over the year projection period than in projections in past IEOs, teading 0.
Coal-related emissions in the OECD and non-OECD regions increase by 0. CPP, OECD coal-related CO2 emissions would decrease by 0. However, at this time only parts of the programs to implement the pledge are in place, and for the IEO Reference case EIA has not assumed anything beyond what EU countries now have in place. Much of the difference between the emissions level projected in the Reference case and the EU goal would aystem be covered by emission allowance credits.
The ETS was introduced in in a first-phase trial period that lasted through The second phase began in and ended in A large surplus of allowances that were accumulated during the first two phases will be available for use in emissiosn third phase, from to [ ]. The ETS credit emissions trading system korea is one of many uncertainties surrounding the prospects for EU reductions. Other uncertainties include: World energy-related CO2 emissions increase at an average annual rate of 1.
On average, OECD emissions increase by 0. Among the OECD countries, energy-related Traving emissions from the combined region of Mexico and Chile grow by an average of 1. In OECD Europe, Emissions trading system korea emissions increase by 0. For the OECD region as a whole, GDP growth averages 2. Environmental Protection Agency EPA published the final version of emissions trading system korea U.
Clean Power Plan rule CPP in August [ ]. The effect of that rule was not included in iorea baseline for Syztem. However, estimates of the effect based on the proposed rule have been included in this chapter. The final CPP reflects substantive changes from the proposed rule, but the overall expected level of CO2 emissions reduction is similar to the level expected under the proposed rule. Thus, under the proposed rule, the projected reduction in output from U.
In the early stages of implementation, natural gas-fired generation is the primary replacement for coal, followed by a shift to renewables in the mids. The actual mix of additional renewables and gas-fired generation resulting from the Clean Power Plan will depend emsisions CPP implementation decisions made by states, the availability of tax credits for renewables—which were extended by legislation enacted in Decemberand fuel and technology costs. Changes to the final CPP, made by the EPA rule in response to comments, relate to the structure and implementation trxding the CPP program rather than to its requirements.
From toemissions from coal combustion in non-OECD Asia increase by 2. Total CO2 emissions in non-OECD Europe and Eurasia increase only slightly, from 2. Two key jorea provide useful insights for the analysis of trends in energy-related emissions: As with carbon intensity, regional energy intensities do not necessarily remain constant over time. For example, if an old power plant is replaced with a more thermally efficient unit, it is possible to meet the same level of electricity demand with a lower level of primary energy consumption, thereby decreasing energy intensity.
Higher concentrations of energy-intensive industries, such as oil and natural gas extraction, will yield higher overall energy intensities, whereas countries with proportionately larger service sectors will tend to have lower energy intensities. Carbon intensity of output is another tradjng measure used in analysis of changes in CO2 emissions, and it is sometimes used as a standalone measure.
The Kaya Identity korsa an intuitive approach to the interpretation koreea historical trends and future projections of energy-related CO2 emissions [ ]. It can be used to decompose total CO2 emissions as the product of individual factors that explicitly link energy-related CO2 emissions to energy consumption, the level of economic output as measured by gross domestic product GDPand population size.
Using those figures in the Kaya equation yields the following: Appendix J shows calculations of the Kaya factors for all IEO regions over the projection period. Reducing growth in per-capita output may have a mitigating influence on emissions, but governments generally pursue policies to increase rather than reduce output per capita to advance economic objectives. Policies related to energy intensity of GDP typically involve improvements to energy efficiency.
If the country producing the imported emissions trading system korea is less energy efficient, a greater reliance on emissiosn goods could lead to a worldwide increase in energy consumption and related CO2 emissions. Policies related emissionx the CO2 intensity of energy supply typically focus on promotion of low-carbon or zero-carbon sources of energy. With all of the components of the Kaya identity having eissions annual percentage rates of change, the percentage rate of change in CO2 emission levels over time approximates the sum of the component korae rate of change.
Table shows the average rates of change in total CO2 emissions and each individual Kaya component from to in the IEO Reference case. The most significant driver of growth in energy-related CO2 emissions is economic output per capita. The average annual growth rate of output per capita for non-OECD countries systrm. For OECD countries, on the other hand, the 1. Except for Japan and Russia—where population is expected to decline from to —population growth is also rtading contributing factor to emissions increases, along with output per capita.
As indicated in Tablein all tgading population growth is less than the growth of output per capita. For non-OECD countries, increases in output per capita coupled with population growth overwhelm improvements in energy intensity and carbon intensity. Although the same was true for the OECD countries from tothe projection horizon shows OECD growth in output per capita and population largely balanced by reductions in energy intensity and carbon intensity Figure emiseions, Figureand Figure The trend is particularly pronounced in the sjstem countries, where energy intensity of output decreases by an average of 2.
Worldwide, the most significant decline in emissions trading system korea energy intensity of output is projected for China, at 2. However, that decline is offset by a projected increase in China's output per capita, averaging 4. Carbon intensity of energy supply is projected to decline in all IEO regions from tobut to a lesser extent than energy tradkng. The combined decrease in carbon intensity for the non-OECD countries is slightly larger than the combined decrease for the OECD countries—0.
With the effects of the U. CPP included, the rate of decline in carbon intensity for the OECD countries is 0. China's projected decrease in energy intensity is the largest, averaging 0. In most regions, decreases in the energy consumption shares for liquid fuels and coal the most carbon-intensive fuelscombined with increases in the shares for renewable energy, nuclear power, and natural gas, reduce the global carbon intensity of energy supply.
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Enter Search Term s :. International Energy Outlook Policies morea limit CO2 emissions in the Syystem States and China. Uncertainties in projecting European Union emissions reductions. Negotiations under way to reform the post ETS are expected to continue for another two years [ ]. Without a better understanding of the rules afterit is difficult to project emissions to With economic growth in the EU lower than projected when the ETS was designed, there are substantial banked unused credits.
Also, covered industries continue to receive some emissiosn allowances. The surplus credits are estimated to reach 2. Further, the current reduction factor of 1. In terms of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, renewable electricity generation is the emisions marginal source of noncarbon energy. Nuclear power, the emissions trading system korea existing source of noncarbon energy, faces an uncertain future in Koreea Europe.
For example, France has been phasing in renewables to replace nuclear capacity. In addition, several EU nations, including Germany and Switzerland, have announced plans to phase out or shut down their operating nuclear reactors in the aftermath of the March disaster at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The price of EU ETS credits has remained around 8 Euros emizsions the past few years, well below the level of 40 to 50 Euros that many analysts believe would be required to initiate a larger shift from fossil fuels to noncarbon energy sources [ ].
Another important uncertainty is whether land use, land use change, and forestry LULUCF will be included in the EU goal. As of Aprilspecific rules for their inclusion had not been published [ ] and LULUCF is not included in the IEO projections. However, the rules could greatly influence levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Clean Power Plan Rule.
In Marchthe United States submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution INDC for GHG emissions reduction to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC. The Clean Power Plan leads to a decrease in coal-fired generation, reflecting both additional emissions trading system korea plant retirements rrading lower utilization rates for plants that remain in use.
Significant changes from the proposed rule to the final rule include:. More gradual implementation over the compliance period. Increased emphasis on trading options, including examples of rules for rate-based and mass-based programs to speed the creation of interstate cooperative programs. Reduced emissions trading system korea across states in the required CO2 emissions reductions, with the EPA basing its emission rate standards on CO2 averages determined at the electricity grid interconnection level rather than at the state level.
World energy demand and economic outlook. Industrial sector energy consumption. Transportation sector energy consumption. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. World total primary energy consumption by region, Reference case, World total energy consumption by region and fuel, Reference case, World gross domestic product GDP by region expressed trwding purchasing power parity.
World gross domestic product GDP by region expressed in market exchange rates, Reference case, Tradng liquids consumption by region, Reference case, World natural gas consumption by region, Reference case, About the International Energy Outlook. Contact Information and Staff. Previous Editions of the IEO. EIA - Emkssions Avenue, SW, Washington, DC RSS Feeds World total emlssions energy consumption by region, Reference eystem, World total energy consumption by systsm and fuel, Reference case, World gross domestic product GDP by region expressed in purchasing power parity.
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Carbon emissions trading in Europe
Carbon trading ETS, RIP? The failure to reform Europe’s carbon market will reverberate round the world. Other trading units in the carbon market More than actual emissions units can be traded and sold under the Kyoto Protocol’s emissions. A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere.