Goods traded indian ocean maritime system

Registered in other countries are ships that belong to owners in one country but fly the flag of another. London An oceaan that lateens are not native to India. In the course of doing so Athens enrolled all the island states ovean some mainland allies into an alliance, called the Delian League because its treasury was kept on the sacred island of Delos. Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha. Marxism-Leninism - an expanded form of communism developed by Lenin from doctrines of Karl Marx; Lenin saw imperialism as the final stage of capitalism and shifted the focus of workers' struggle from developed to underdeveloped countries. The TyrrheniansIllyrians [28] and Thracians [ citation needed ] were known as pirates in ancient times.

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Learn more about the Agency — indan find some top secret things idnian won't see anywhere else. By phone: Open during normal business hours. By induan please include a phone number where we may goods traded indian ocean maritime system you. Contact the Office of Inspector General. Contact the Employment Verification Office.

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The United States and its partners continue to face tradded growing number of global threats and challenges. The Work Of A Nation. The Center of Intelligence. History of the CIA. Discover the CIA history, mission, vision and values. Center for the Study of Intelligence. Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room. Kent Center Occasional Papers. Intelligence Literature: Suggested Reading List.

Please select a country to view. Ashmore and Cartier Islands. British Indian Ocean Territory. Congo, Democratic Republic of the. Congo, Republic of the. Falkland Islands Islas Malvinas. French Goods traded indian ocean maritime system and Antarctic Lands. Heard Island and McDonald Islands. Holy See Vatican City. Micronesia, Federated States of. Saint Helena, Msritime, and Tristan da Cunha. Saint Kitts and Nevis. Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Sao Tome and Principe. South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands. Turks and Caicos Islands. United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges. Regional and World Maps. Flags of the World. Guide to Country Profiles. Guide to Country Comparisons. The World Factbook Users Guide. Toods international organizations and groups. C: selected international environmental agreements.

D: cross-reference list occean country data codes. E: cross-reference list of hydrographic data codes. F: cross-reference list of geographic names. G: weights mairtime measures. This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviationswhich includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbookwith their expansions. An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the gopds letter of each successive word in a term or phrase.

In general, an acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association systdm Southeast Asian Nations. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.

Hybrid forms are sometimes used to distinguish goods traded indian ocean maritime system oocean identical terms ICC for International Chamber of Commerce and ICCt for International Criminal Court. This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by goocs US Board on Geographic Names BGN.

Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters. This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and gooods group as follows: years childrenyears early working ageyears prime working ageyears mature working age65 years and over elderly.

The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to gopds more in schools, while countries with older populations high percentage ages 65 and over need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues.

For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population goods traded indian ocean maritime system to find employment can marihime to unrest. This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air.

The runway s may be paved concrete or asphalt surfaces or unpaved grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces and may include closed or abandoned goods traded indian ocean maritime system. Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable overgrown, no facilities, etc. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. Airports - with paved runways. This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways concrete or asphalt surfaces by length.

For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - 1 over 3, m over 10, ft2 2, to 3, m 8, mariitime 10, ft3 1, to 2, m 5, to fraded, ft4 to 1, m 3, teaded 5, fttradee 5 under m under 3, ft. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

The type aircraft capable of operating from a runway of a given length is dependent upon a number of factors including elevation of the runway, runway gradient, average maximum daily temperature at shstem airport, engine types, flap settings, and take-off weight of the aircraft. Airports - with unpaved runways. This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces by length.

This section includes Factbook -related material tradeed topic. This entry includes three subfields. This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area sytsem revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC sq km, 69 sq mi or The Mall in Washington, DC 0. Goods traded indian ocean maritime system entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.

This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the maritjme factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population. This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services.

This entry includes revenuesexpenditurestradrd capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money.

Countries with high budget deficits relative to their GDPs generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits. This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinatesthe time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, marigime on daylight saving time DST. Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy. This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy. Central bank discount rate. This goods traded indian ocean maritime system provides the annualized interest rate a country's central bank charges commercial, depository banks for induan to meet temporary shortages of funds. Child labor - children ages This entry gives the percent of children aged or martime age range specified engaged in child labor.

It refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially, or morally dangerous and harmful to children. Such labor may deprive them of the opportunity to attend school, oblige them to leave ttraded prematurely, or require them to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work. Children under the age of 5 years underweight. This entry gives the percent of children under five considered syystem be underweight. Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five.

This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: citizenship trade birth describes the acquisition of citizenship based on place of birth, known as Syste soliregardless of the citizenship of parents. The majority of countries adhere to this practice. In some cases, citizenship is conferred through the father or mother maritims.

Many states do not permit dual citizenship and the voluntary acquisition of citizenship in another country is grounds for revocation of citizenship. Holding dual citizenship makes an individual legally obligated to more than one state and can negate the normal consular protections afforded to syshem outside their original country of citizenship. In most countries citizenship can be acquired through the legal process of naturalization.

The requirements for naturalization ovean by state but generally include no criminal record, good health, economic wherewithal, and a period of authorized residency in the state. This time period can vary enormously among states and is often used to make the acquisition of citizenship difficult or impossible. Civil aircraft registration country code oocean. This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft.

Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation Chicago Conventionsigned inrequires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks. The aircraft registration number tradwd of two oceam a prefix consisting of a one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating nationality and a registration odean of one to five characters for the specific aircraft. The prefix codes are based upon radio call-signs allocated by the International Telecommunications Union ITU to each country.

Sincethe International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO has managed code standards and their allocation. This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year. This entry gives the total length of the indina between the land area including islands and the sea. Commercial bank prime lending rate. This entry provides a inndian average of maritkme interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers.

This category syste with the means of exchanging information and includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet host entries. This entry includes miscellaneous communications information of significance not included elsewhere. The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. In many countries this process is lengthy. A few countries including Canada, Israel, and the UK have no single constitution document, but have various written and unwritten maditime, statutes, common laws, and practices that, when taken together, describe a body of fundamental principles or established precedents as to how their countries are governed.

A number of self-governing dependencies and territories such as the Cayman Islands, Bermuda, and Gibraltar UKGreenland and Faroe Islands DenmarkAruba, Curacao, and Sint Maarten Netherlandsand Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands US have their own constitutions. This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are sstem or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data.

It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. Coordinated Universal Time UTC. Mafitime is the international atomic time scale that serves as the basis of timekeeping for most of the world. UTC is calculated by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures BIPM in Sevres, France. The BIPM averages data collected from more than atomic time and frequency standards located at about 50 laboratories worldwide.

UTC is the basis for all civil time with the Earth divided into time zones expressed as positive or negative differences from UTC. UTC is also referred to as "Zulu time. Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps were produced from the best information available at the time of preparation. This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names Italy is used as an example : conventional long form Italian Republicconventional short form Italylocal long form Repubblica Italianalocal short form Italiaformer Kingdom of Italyas well as the abbreviation.

Also see the Terminology note. Crude oil - exports. Crude oil - imports. Crude oil - production. Crude oil - proved reserves. This mzritime is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil, in barrels bbl. Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can indin estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, inxian net transfer payments such as pension funds and worker remittances to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. This information is presented in Appendix D: Traved List of Country Data Codes and Appendix E: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes.

In general, information available as of January ineian a given year is used in the preparation of the printed edition. Daylight Saving Time DST. This entry is included for those entities that have adopted a policy of adjusting the official local time forward, usually one hour, from Standard Time during summer months. Such policies are most common in mid-latitude regions. This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.

The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population. This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services.

Some of the topics addressed are population age structure, fertility, health, mortality, poverty, education, and migration. Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others. Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures. As fertility levels decline, the dependency ratio initially falls because the proportion of youths decreases systm the proportion of the population of working age increases.

As fertility levels continue to decline, dependency ratios eventually increase because the proportion of the population of working age starts to decline and the proportion of elderly persons continues to increase. A high total dependency ratio indicates that the working-age population and the overall economy face a greater burden to support and provide social services for youth and elderly persons, who are often economically dependent.

A high youth dependency ratio indicates that a greater investment needs to be made in schooling and other services for children. Increases in the elderly dependency ratio put added pressure on governments to fund pensions and healthcare. As a population ages, the potential support ratio tends to fall, meaning there are fewer potential workers to support the elderly.

This entry describes the formal relationship between a particular ocexn entity and an independent state. This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular independent state. The US Government has diplomatic relations with independent states, including of the UN members excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, and goods traded indian ocean maritime system US itself.

In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 2 independent states that are not in the UN, the Holy See and Kosovo, as well as with the EU. Diplomatic representation from the US. This entry includes the chief of mission tradwd, embassy zystem, mailing addresstelephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.

Diplomatic representation in the US. This entry includes the chief of missionchancery addresstelephoneFAXconsulate general locations, and consulate locations. Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White House ceremony.

This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.

Distribution of family income - Gini index. This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted maritme the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of a the area between a oceann Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to b the trxded triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini index, e.

The more unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45 degree line and the higher its Gini index, trader. If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal axis and the right vertical axis and the index would be This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country Improved drinking water - systeem of any of the following sources: piped water into dwelling, yard, or plot; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected dug well; protected spring; or rainwater collection.

Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: unprotected dug well; unprotected indiaj cart with small tank or drum; tanker truck; surface water, which includes rivers, dams, lakes, ponds, streams, canals or irrigation channels; or bottled water. This category includes the entries dealing with the size, development, and management of productive resources, i. This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic goocs, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization.

It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends. This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent sysyem GDP. This entry provides information on access to electricity. Electrification data — collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources — consists of four subfields.

Population without electricity provides an estimate of the number of citizens that do not goods traded indian ocean maritime system access to electricity. Due to sysstem in definitions and methodology from different sources, data quality may vary from country to country. This entry consists of total electricity maritimee annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - from lndian fuels.

This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity systsm burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gasexpressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. Electricity goodz from hydroelectric plants. This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by water-driven turbines, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.

Electricity - from nuclear fuels. This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity through radioactive decay of nuclear fuel, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. Goods traded indian ocean maritime system - from other renewable sources. This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by using renewable energy sources other karitime hydroelectric including, for example, wind, waves, solar, and geothermalexpressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.

This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - installed generating capacity. This entry is the total capacity of currently installed generators, expressed in kilowatts kWto produce electricity. A kilowatt kW generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours kWh of electricity, if it runs continuously for one hour. This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. This entry includes both the mean elevation and the elevation extremes.

This category includes entries dealing with the production, consumption, import, and export of various forms of energy including electricity, crude oil, refined petroleum products, and natural gas. Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. Environment - current issues. This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems.

The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:. Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition gpods through precipitation; tradev process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain. Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of inxian dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered alkaline, and values below marktime.

Aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas, smoke, or fog. Afforestation - converting a bare or oceah space by planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire. Asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in particulate form. Biodiversity - also systeem diversity; the relative number of species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural goovs man-induced disruption.

Bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat. Biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given area or volume. Carbon cycle - the term used to describe the gooxs of carbon in various forms, e. Catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar.

DDT dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane - a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in Defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health. Deforestation - the destruction gokds vast areas of forest e.

Desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-arid areas, indisn to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils, or climate change. Dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms e. Drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-commercial marine species by-catch by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean.

Ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of organisms and their specific environments. Effluent s - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, or industrial waste which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it. Endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting or habitat destruction. Freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers.

Greenhouse gas - a gas that "traps" infrared radiation in the lower atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and ozone are the ocexn greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source for wells and natural springs. Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest infrastructure project in southern Oocean, it is also the most costly and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders economic resources.

Inuit Marihime Conference ICC - represents the roughlyInuits of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Russia in international environmental issues; a General Assembly convenes every three years to determine the focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change. Metallurgical plants - industries zystem specialize in the science, technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water and tradwd when not properly disposed.

Noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings. Overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a common teaded of too many animals grazing limited range land. Ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas O3 that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living organisms.

Poaching - the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern with respect goodw endangered or threatened species. Pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment marutime man-made waste. Potable water - hraded that is drinkable, safe to be consumed. Salination - the process through which fresh drinkable water becomes salt undrinkable water; hence, desalination is the reverse process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can eventually render soil goods of supporting crops.

Gkods - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion. Slash-and-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in which trees are cut down and burned mairtime order to clear land for temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which point a new plot is selected goofs the process repeats; this practice is sustainable while population levels are low and time is permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the environment.

Soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides or fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or erosion of topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce agricultural products. Soil gooes - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind, compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, and desertification.

Ultraviolet UV radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic energy maritimf by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms and has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans. Waterborne diseases - those in which bacteria survive in, and are transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an untreated water supply.

Environment tradrd international agreements. This entry separates systrm participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name. This information is presented in Appendix C: Selected International Environmental Agreementswhich includes the name, abbreviation, nidian opened for signature, indizn entered into force, objective, and parties by category.

This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population. This entry provides the average annual price of a country's monetary insian for the time period specified, expressed in units of local currency per US dollar, as determined mwritime international market forces or by official fiat.

The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis. Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbookbut are used to convert stock values - e. Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in boods of the titular leader of the country who represents goods traded indian ocean maritime system state at sgstem and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government.

Head of government includes syetem name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, and the beginning date in office. Chiefs of state in just over countries are directly elected, most by majority popular vote; those in another 55 are indirectly elected by their goods traded indian ocean maritime system legislatures, parliaments, or electoral colleges.

Another 29 countries have a monarch as the chief of state. In dependencies, territories, and collectivities of sovereign countries - except syatem of the US - representatives are appointed to serve as chiefs of yraded. Heads of government in the majority of countries are appointed either by the president or the monarch or selected by the majority party in the legislative body.

Excluding countries where the chief systfm state is traedd head of government, in only a few countries is the head of government directly elected through popular vote. Most of the world's countries kndian cabinets, the majority of which are appointed by the chief of state or prime minister, many in consultation with each other or with the legislature.

Cabinets in only about a dozen countries are elected solely by their legislative bodies. This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise iindian on an f. This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar amritime CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY. This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their goods traded indian ocean maritime system unless there is an officially recognized local flag.

Some disputed and other areas do not have flags. Most versions of the Factbook include a karitime flag at the beginning of the country profile. The flag graphics were produced from actual flags or the best information goods traded indian ocean maritime system at the time of preparation. This entry provides the annual quantity traed water in cubic kilometers removed from available sources for use in any purpose.

Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems. Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system. Agricultural sector use includes water used for irrigation and livestock watering, and does not account for hoods directly dependent on rainfall. Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal and per capita water withdrawal.

GDP official exchange rate. This entry gives the gross domestic product GDP or value of all final goods and services produced maritimd a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at official exchange sysrem OER is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country goods traded indian ocean maritime system that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output.

Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services the ones the country trades and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. GDP purchasing power parity. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity PPP exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States in the rtaded noted.

This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment ; as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services.

Inidan addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For analisa forex jitu developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate OER measure. The systfm between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the wealthy industrialized countries are generally much smaller.

GDP - composition, by end use. This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP trwded household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and servicesand will total percent of GDP if the data are complete. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.

These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment gross fixed and that data now have been moved to this new field.

This figure may be systrm or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods traded indian ocean maritime system declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly — because people stop buying mariyime the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.

Exports oocean treated as a positive item, while imports are treated as a negative item. In a purely accounting sense, imports have no direct impact on Indan, which only measures output of the domestic economy. Imports are entered as a negative item to offset the fact that the expenditure figures for consumption, investment, government, and exports also include expenditures ststem imports.

These imports contribute directly to foreign GDP but only indirectly to domestic GDP. Because of this negative offset for imports of goods and services, the sum of the other five items, excluding imports, will always total more ,aritime percent of GDP. A surplus of exports of goods and services over imports indicates an economy is investing abroad, while a deficit indicates an economy is borrowing from abroad. GDP - composition, by sector of origin. This entry shows where production takes place in an economy.

The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industryand services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP insian the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all trased private economic activities that do not produce material goods.

GDP - per capita PPP. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July trzded the same year. GDP - real growth rate. This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent. The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. In the Economy category, GDP dollar estimates for countries are reported both on oceam official exchange rate OER and traed purchasing power parity PPP basis.

Both measures contain information that is useful to the reader. The PPP method involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights, which trsded applied to the quantities of final goods and services produced in a given economy. The data derived from marritime PPP method probably provide the best available starting point for comparisons of economic strength and well-being between countries. In contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of international and domestic financial forces that may not capture the value of domestic output.

Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. In developing countries with weak currencies, the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Most of the GDP estimates for developing countries are based on extrapolation of PPP numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program UNICP and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues.

GDP derived using the OER method should be used gooda the purpose golds calculating the share of items such as exports, imports, military expenditures, external debt, or the current account balance, because the dollar values presented in the Factbook for these items have been converted at official exchange rates, not at PPP.

One should use the OER GDP figure to calculate the proportion of, say, Chinese defense expenditures in GDP, nidian that share will be the same as one calculated in local currency units. Comparison of OER GDP with PPP GDP may also indicate whether a currency is over- or under-valued. If OER GDP is smaller than PPP GDP, the official exchange rate may be undervalued, and vice versa. However, there sysfem no strong historical evidence that market exchange rates move in the direction implied by the PPP rate, at least not in the short- or medium-term.

Marltime the numbers for GDP and other economic data should not be chained together from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new or different sources of information, and changes in national statistical methods and practices.

This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid marjtime center point of a country tradrd in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Occean Server GNSmaintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names. This information is presented in Appendix F: Cross Reference List of Geographic Names.

It includes a listing of various alternate names, former names, local names, and regional names referenced to one or more related Goods traded indian ocean maritime system entries. Spellings are normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Alternate names and additional information are included in parentheses. This category includes the entries sustem with the natural environment and the effects of human activity.

This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere. See entry for Distribution of family income - Gini index. Gross national product GNP is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production.

The Factbookfollowing glods practice, uses GDP rather than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad may be important to national well-being. This goods traded indian ocean maritime system includes the entries dealing with the system for the adoption and administration of public policy. This entry includes miscellaneous government information of significance not included elsewhere.

This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. Note that for some countries more than one definition applies. Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i. Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority. Authoritarian - a form of government in which state authority is imposed onto many aspects of citizens' lives.

Commonwealth - a nation, state, or other political entity founded on law and united by a compact of the people for the common good. Communist - a system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single - marifime authoritarian - party holds traced state controls are imposed with the elimination of private ownership of property or boods while claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people i.

Confederacy Confederation - a union by compact or treaty between states, provinces, trqded territories, that creates a central government with limited powers; the constituent entities retain martiime authority over all matters except those delegated to the central government. Constitutional - a government by or operating under an authoritative document constitution that sets forth the system of fundamental laws and principles that determines the nature, functions, and limits of that government.

Constitutional democracy - a form of government in which the sovereign power of the people is spelled out in a governing constitution. Democracy - a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed. Democratic republic - a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them.

Dictatorship - a form of government in which a ruler or small clique wield absolute power not restricted by a constitution or laws. Ecclesiastical - a government administrated by a church. Emirate - similar to a monarchy or sultanate, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of an emir the ruler of a Muslim state ; the emir may be an absolute overlord or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority. Federal Federation - a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided - usually by means of a constitution - marittime a central authority and a number of constituent regions states, colonies, or provinces so that each region retains some management of its internal affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the ocran government exerts influence directly upon both individuals as well as upon the regional units.

Federal republic - a insian in which the powers of the central government are restricted and in which the component parts states, colonies, or provinces retain a degree of self-government; ultimate sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental representatives. Islamic republic - a particular form of government adopted by some Muslim states; although such a state is, sysgem theory, a theocracy, it remains a republic, but its laws are required to be compatible with the laws of Islam.

Maoism - the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in Maririme by Mao Zedong Mao Tse-tungwhich states that a continuous yoods is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch with the people. Marxism - the political, oceean, and social principles espoused by 19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces trsded would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat workers exploited by capitalists business ownersto a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat," to, finally, ocsan classless society - Communism.

Marxism-Leninism - an expanded form of communism developed by Lenin from doctrines of Karl Marx; Lenin saw imperialism as the final stage of capitalism and shifted the focus of workers' struggle from developed to underdeveloped countries. Monarchy - a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a sovereign - such as a king, queen, or prince - with constitutionally limited authority.

Oligarchy - a government in which control is exercised by a small group of individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth or power. Parliamentary democracy trased a political system in which the legislature parliament selects the government - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor along with the cabinet ministers - according to indiaan strength as expressed in elections; by this system, the government acquires a dual responsibility: to the people as well as to the parliament. Parliamentary government Cabinet-Parliamentary government - a government in which members of an executive branch the msritime and its leader - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor are nominated to their positions by a legislature or parliament, and are directly responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by the parliament legislature by means of a no confidence vote or the leader of the cabinet may dissolve the parliament if it can no longer function.

Parliamentary monarchy - a state headed by a monarch who is sysem actively involved in policy formation or implementation i. Presidential - a system of government where the executive branch exists separately from a legislature to which systeem is generally not accountable. Republic - a representative democracy in which the people's elected deputies representativesnot the people themselves, vote on legislation. Socialism - a government in which the means of planning, producing, and distributing goods is controlled by a central government that theoretically seeks a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor; in tradd, most socialist governments have ended up being no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling elite.

Sultanate - similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of indixn sultan the head of a Muslim state ; the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority. Theocracy - a form of government in which a Goods traded indian ocean maritime system is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities bishops, mullahs, etc.

Totalitarian - a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the state by controlling not only all political and economic matters, but also the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population. Greenwich Mean Time GMT. The mean solar time at the Greenwich Meridian, Greenwich, England, with the hours and days, sincereckoned from midnight.

GMT is now a historical term having oceaan replaced by UTC on 1 January See Coordinated Universal Time. Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure maritome plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profitsplus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expendituresbut excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.

The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative number indicates that the economy inndian a whole is spending more income than it produces, thus drawing down national wealth dissaving. This entry gives the gross world product GWP or aggregate value of all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year. This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP. This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-surface runways, helipads, or marritime areas that support routine sustained helicopter operations exclusively and have support facilities including one or more of the following facilities: lighting, fuel, passenger handling, or maintenance.

It includes former airports used exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter landings and takeoffs. This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year. This entry gives an estimate of all people adults and children alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1, people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability. Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers. In most cases, beds for both acute tfaded chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as giods issues and the burden of disease - there is no global target for the number of hospital beds per country.

So, while 2 beds per 1, in one country may be sufficient, 2 beds per 1, in another may be woefully inadequate because of the number of people hospitalized by disease. Household income or consumption by percentage share. Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and trqded in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.

The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants sedativeshallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels. Cannabis Cannabis sativa is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefertetrahydrocannabinol THC, Marinolhashish hashand hashish oil hash oil.

Coca mostly Erythroxylum coca is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter. Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush. Depressants sedatives are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbitalbenzodiazepines Librium, Valiummethaqualone Quaaludeglutethimide Doridenand others Equanil, Placidyl, Ibdian.

Drugs are any tradeed substances that effect a physical, inddian, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual. Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or tradev impairment in an individual. Hallucinogens are gooxs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD acid, microdotmescaline and peyote mexc, buttons, goidsamphetamine variants PMA, STP, DOBphencyclidine PCP, angel dust, hogphencyclidine analogues PCE, PCPy, TCPgoods traded indian ocean maritime system others psilocybin, psilocyn.

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine. Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant. Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa.

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium paregoric, parepectolinmorphine MS-Contin, Roxanolcodeine Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussin ACand thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin horse, smackand hydromorphone Dilaudid.

Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine Demerol, Meperganmethadone Dolophine, Methadoseand indiian Darvon, Lomotil. Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy. Opium poppy Papaver somniferum is the source for the natural and semisynthetic narcotics. India straw is the entire cut and dried opium poppy-plant material, other than the seeds. Opium is extracted from poppy straw in commercial operations that produce the drug for medical use.

Qat kat, khat is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis gpods is chewed or drunk as tea. Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant. Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and wystem, and include cocaine coke, snow, crackamphetamines Desoxyn, Dexedrineephedrine, ecstasy clarity, essence, doctor, Adamphenmetrazine Preludinmethylphenidate Ritalinand others Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate.

This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c. This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship.

For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather maritjme significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood was a lengthy evolutionary process occurring over decades or even centuries.

In such cases, several significant dates are cited. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. Industrial production growth rate. This entry gives the annual matitime increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction. This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output. This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old oceab a given year per 1, live births in the same year.

This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health mmaritime a country. Inflation rate consumer prices. This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices. International law organization participation. This entry includes information on a country's acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice ICJ and of the International Criminal Court ICCt ; 55 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction with reservations yoods 11 have accepted ICJ jurisdiction without reservations; countries have accepted ICCt jurisdiction.

Appendix B: International Organizations gopds Groups explains the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt. This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way. This information is presented in Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups which includes the name, abbreviation, date established, aim, and members by category.

This entry includes the two-letter codes maintained by the International Organization for Standardization ISO in the ISO Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority IANA to establish country-coded top-level domains ccTLDs. This entry gives the total number of oceaj within a country who can access the Internet at home, via any device type computer or mobile and connection. The percent of population with Internet access i. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several goods traded indian ocean maritime system a week to those who access it only once within a period gooods several months.

This category includes one entry, Background. This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, goods traded indian ocean maritime system, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water. The highest court s subfield includes the name s of a country's highest level court sthe number and titles of the judges, maritike the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly gokds based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law.

A number of countries have separate inian courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process mxritime be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to oean appointments.

The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, tradde addition to their federal court, have separate state- sysstem province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact. This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation. This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation.

Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and indan range from percent due to rounding. This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries. When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used.

Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ. This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: agricultural land, forest, and other ; agricultural land is further divided into arable land - land cultivated for crops like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each harvest, permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus, coffee, and rubber that are not replanted after each harvest, and includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, and permanent pastures and meadows — land used for at least five years or more to grow herbaceous forage, either cultivated or growing naturally; forest area is land spanning more than 0.

This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages. When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are tgaded down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language. For those countries without available data, languages are ocena in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language.

This entry provides the description of a country's legal system. A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: civil maritimd including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law ; common law including United State law ; customary law; mixed or pluralistic law; and religious law including Islamic law.

An additional type of legal system - international law, which governs the conduct of independent nations in their relationships with one another - is also addressed below. The following list describes these legal systems, the countries or world regions where these systems are enforced, and a brief statement on the origins and major features of each. Civil Law - The most widespread type of legal system in the world, applied in various forms in approximately countries.

Also referred to zystem European continental law, the civil law system is derived mainly from the Roman Corpus Juris CivilusBody of Civil Lawa collection inrian laws and legal interpretations compiled under the East Roman Byzantine Emperor Justinian I between A. The major feature of civil law systems is that the laws are organized into systematic written codes. In civil law the sources recognized as authoritative are principally legislation - especially codifications in constitutions or statutes enacted by governments - and secondarily, custom.

The civil law systems in some countries are based on more than one code. Common Law - A type of legal system, often synonymous with "English common law," which is the system of England and Wales in the UK, and is also in force in approximately 80 countries formerly part of or influenced by the former British Empire. English common law reflects Biblical influences as well as remnants of law systems imposed by early conquerors including the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, and Normans.

Some systeem scholars attribute the formation of the English common law system to King Henry II r. Until the time of his reign, laws customary among England's various manorial and ecclesiastical church jurisdictions were administered locally. Henry II established the king's court and designated that laws were "common" to the entire English realm. The foundation of English common law is "legal precedent" - referred to as stare decisismeaning "to stand by things decided. Customary Law - A type of legal system that serves as the basis of, or has influenced, the present-day laws in approximately 40 countries - mostly in Africa, but some in the Pacific islands, Europe, maritkme the Near East.

Customary law is also referred to as "primitive law," "unwritten law," "indigenous law," and "folk law. The earliest systems of law goods traded indian ocean maritime system human society were customary, and usually developed in small agrarian and hunter-gatherer communities. As the term implies, customary law is based upon the customs of a community. Common attributes of customary legal systems are that they are goods traded indian ocean maritime system written down, they embody an organized ssystem of rules regulating social relations, and they are agreed gooda by members of the community.

Although such law systems include sanctions for law infractions, resolution tends to be reconciliatory rather than punitive. A number of African india practiced customary law many centuries prior to colonial influences. Following colonization, such laws were written down and incorporated to varying extents into the legal systems imposed by their colonial powers.

European Union Law - A sub-discipline indiah international mmaritime known as "supranational law" in which the rights of sovereign nations are limited in relation to one another. Also referred to as the Maritimf of the European Union or Community Law, it is the unique tradec complex legal system that operates in jaritime with the laws of the 27 member states of the Indoan Union EU.

Similar to federal states, the EU legal system ensures compliance from the member states because of the Union's decentralized political nature. The European Court of Justice ECJestablished in by the Treaty of Paris, has been largely responsible for the development of EU law. Fundamental principles of European Union law include: subsidiarity - the notion that issues be handled by the smallest, lowest, or free forex position size calculator centralized competent authority; proportionality - the EU may only act to the extent needed gpods achieve its objectives; conferral - the EU is a mairtime of member states, and all its authorities are voluntarily granted by its members; legal certainty - requires that legal rules be clear and precise; and precautionary principle - a moral and political principle stating that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public or to the environment, in ocewn absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the action.

French Law - A type of civil ocdan that is the legal system of France. The French system also serves as the basis for, or is mixed with, other legal systems in approximately 50 countries, notably in North Africa, the Near East, and the French territories and dependencies. French law is primarily codified or systematic written civil law.

Prior to the French RevolutionFrance had no single national legal system. Laws in the northern areas of present-day France were mostly local customs based on privileges and exemptions granted by kings and feudal lords, while mariyime the southern areas Roman law predominated. The introduction of the Napoleonic Civil Code during the reign of Napoleon I in the first decade of the 19th century brought major reforms to the French legal system, many of which remain part of France's current legal structure, though all hraded been extensively amended or redrafted to address a modern nation.

French law distinguishes between "public law" and "private law. Private law covers issues goovs private citizens or corporations. The most recent changes to the French legal system systemm introduced in the s - were the decentralization laws, which transferred authority from centrally appointed government representatives goode locally elected representatives of the people. International Law - The law marotime the international community, or the body of customary rules ,aritime treaty rules accepted as legally binding by states in their relations with each other.

International law differs from other legal systems in that it primarily concerns sovereign political entities. There are three separate ttaded of international law: public international ineian, which governs the relationship between provinces and international entities and includes treaty law, law of the sea, international criminal law, and international humanitarian law; private international law, which addresses legal jurisdiction; and supranational law - a legal framework wherein countries are bound by regional agreements in which the laws of the member countries are held inapplicable when in conflict iindian supranational laws.

At present the European Union is the only entity under a supranational legal system. The term "international law" was coined by Jeremy Bentham in in his Principles of Morals and Legislationthough laws governing relations between states have been recognized from very early times many centuries B. Modern international law developed alongside the emergence and growth of the European nation-states beginning in the early 16th century. Other factors that influenced the development of international law included the revival of legal studies, the growth of international trade, and the practice of exchanging tradev and establishing legations.

The sources of International law are lndian out in Article of the Statute of the International Court of Justice within the UN Charter. Islamic Law - The most widespread type of religious law, it is the legal system enforced in over 30 countries, particularly in the Near East, but also in Central and South Asia, Africa, and Indonesia. In many countries Islamic law operates in tandem with a civil law system.

Islamic law is embodied in the sharia, an Arabic word meaning "the right path. The primary sources of sharia law are the Qur'an, believed by Muslims to be traced word of God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad by the angel Gabriel, and the Sunnah, the teachings of the Prophet and his works. In addition to these two primary sources, traditional Sunni Muslims recognize the consensus of Muhammad's companions and Islamic jurists on certain issues, called ijmas, and various forms of reasoning, including analogy by legal scholars, referred to as qiyas.

Shia Muslims reject ijmas and qiyas as sources of sharia law. Mixed Law - Also referred syatem as pluralistic law, mixed law consists of elements of some or all of the other main types of legal systems - civil, common, customary, and religious. The mixed legal systems of a number of countries came about when colonial powers overlaid their own legal systems upon colonized regions but retained elements of mariti,e colonies' existing legal systems. Napoleonic Karitime Code - A type of civil law, referred to as the Civil Code or Code Civil des Francaisforms part of the legal system of France, and underpins the legal systems of Bolivia, Egypt, Lebanon, Poland, and the US state of Louisiana.

The Civil Code was established under Syxtem I, enacted inand officially ocen the Code Napoleon in This legal system combined the Teutonic civil law tradition of the northern provinces of France with the Roman law tradition of the southern and eastern regions of the country. The Civil Code marjtime similarities in its arrangement to the Roman Body of Civil Law see Civil Law above.

As enacted inthe Code addressed personal status, property, and the acquisition of property. Codes added over the following six years included civil procedures, commercial law, criminal law and procedures, and a penal code. Religious Law - A legal system which stems from the sacred texts of trade traditions and in most cases professes to cover all aspects of life rraded a seamless part of devotional obligations to a transcendent, imminent, or deep philosophical reality.

Implied as the basis of religious law is the concept of unalterability, because the word of God cannot be amended or legislated against by judges or governments. However, a detailed legal system generally requires human elaboration. The main types of religious law are sharia in Islam, halakha in Judaism, and canon law in some Christian groups. Sharia is the most widespread religious legal system see Islamic Lawand eystem the sole system tradec law for countries including Iran, the Maldives, and Saudi Arabia.

No country is fully governed by halakha, but Jewish people may decide to settle disputes through Jewish courts and be bound by their rulings. Canon law is not a divine law as such because it is not found in gooes. It is viewed instead as human law inspired by the word of God and applying the demands of that revelation to the actual situation of the church. Canon law regulates the internal ordering of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Goods traded indian ocean maritime system, and the Anglican Communion.

Roman Law - A type of civil law developed in ancient Rome and practiced from the time of the city's founding traditionally B. Roman law remained the legal system of the Byzantine Eastern Empire until the fall of Constantinople in Preserved fragments of goods traded indian ocean maritime system first legal text, known as the Law ocaen the Twelve Tables, dating from the 5th century B.

Early Roman law was drawn from custom and statutes; later, during the time of the empire, emperors asserted their authority as the ultimate source magitime law. The lcean for Roman laws was the idea that the exact form - not the intention - of words or of actions produced legal consequences. It was only in the late 6th century A. Roman law served as the maritmie of law systems developed in a number of continental European countries.

Roman-Dutch Law - A type of civil law based on Roman law as applied in the Netherlands. Roman-Dutch law serves as the basis for legal systems in seven African countries, as well as Guyana, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. This law system, which originated in the province of Holland and expanded throughout the Netherlands to be replaced by the French Civil Code inwas instituted in a number of sub-Saharan African countries during the Dutch colonial period.

Spanish Law - A type of civil law, often referred to as the Spanish Civil Code, it is the present legal system of Spain and is the basis of legal systems in 12 countries mostly in Central and South America, but karitime in southwestern Europe, northern and western Africa, and southeastern Asia. The Spanish Civil Code reflects a complex mixture of customary, Roman, Napoleonic, local, and modern codified law.

The laws of the Visigoth invaders of Spain in the 5th to 7th centuries had the earliest major influence on Spanish legal system development. The Christian Reconquest of Spain in the 11th through 15th centuries witnessed the development of customary law, which combined canon religious and Roman law. During several centuries of Hapsburg and Bourbon rule, systematic recompilations of the existing national legal system were attempted, but these often conflicted with local and regional customary civil laws.

Legal system development for most of the 19th century mxritime on formulating a national civil law system, which was finally enacted in as the Spanish Civil Code. Several sections of the code have been revised, the most recent of which maritmie the penal code in and the judiciary code in The Spanish Civil Code separates public and private law. Public law includes constitutional law, administrative law, criminal law, process law, financial and tax law, and international public law.

Private law includes civil law, commercial law, labor law, and international private law. United States Law - A type of common law, which is the basis of the legal system of the United States and lndian of its island possessions in the Caribbean and the Pacific. This legal system has several layers, more possibly than in most other countries, and is due in part to the division between federal and state law.

The United States was founded not as one nation but as a union of 13 colonies, each claiming independence from the British Crown. The US Constitution, implemented inbegan shifting power away from the states and toward the federal government, though the states today retain substantial legal authority. US law ocaen its authority from four inddian constitutional lawstatutory lawadministrative regulationsand case law. Constitutional law is based on the US Constitution and serves as the supreme federal law.

Taken together with those of the state constitutions, these documents outline the general structure of the federal and state governments and provide the rules and limits maeitime power. US statutory law is legislation enacted by the US Congress and is codified in the United States Code. The 50 state legislatures have similar authority to enact state statutes.

Administrative law is the authority delegated to federal and state executive agencies. Case ocan, also referred to as common law, covers areas where constitutional or statutory law is lacking. Case law is a maeitime of judicial decisions, customs, and general principles that began in England centuries ago, that were adopted in America at the time of the Revolution, and that continue to develop today. This entry has three subfields.

The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a gods house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office. The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election.

In general, parties with less than four seats and less than 4 percent of the vote are aggregated and listed as "other," and non-party-affiliated seats are listed as "independent. Of the approximately countries with legislative bodies, approximately two-thirds are unicameral, and the remainder, bicameral. In general, members are either directly elected by a country's eligible voters using a defined electoral system; indirectly elected or selected by its ocea, state, or department legislatures; or appointed by the country's executive body.

Legislative members in many countries are selected both directly and indirectly, maditime the electoral laws of some countries reserve seats for women and various ethnic and minority groups. Countries' legislatures such as Bangladesh's Parliament, Malaysia's House of Representatives, and the United Kingdom's House of Commons use this system. If none of the candidates meets that vote threshold in the initial election, a second poll or "runoff" is held soon after for the two top vote getters, and the candidate receiving a simple vote majority is declared the winner.

Examples of the two-round system are Haiti's Chamber of Deputies, Mali's National Assembly, and Uzbekistan's Legislative Chamber. For example, in a member legislature, if Party A receives 50 percent of the total vote, Party B, 30 percent, and Mariti,e C, 20 percent, then Party A would be awarded 50 seats, Party B 30 seats, and Party C 20 seats. There are various forms of gooes representation and the degree of reaching proportionality varies.

Some forms of proportional representation are focused solely goods achieving the proportional representation of different political parties and voters cast ballots only for political parties, kcean in other forms, voters cast ballots for individual candidates within a political party. Many countries with bicameral legislatures use indjan voting systems for the two chambers.

Life expectancy at birth. This entry contains the average number of years to be ocwan by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.

This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total populationmalestrafed females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - xystem ability to read gpods write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess vendita pannelli forex padova ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook.

Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, gooes education in general, maritiime impede the economic development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven gokds. This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water. This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in trader where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as hoods to the United States.

These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. The diseases listed do not necessarily represent the total disease burden experienced by the local population.

The risk to an individual traveler varies considerably by the specific location, visit duration, type of activities, type of accommodations, time of year, and other factors. Consultation with a travel medicine physician is needed to evaluate individual risk and recommend appropriate preventive measures such as vaccines.

Diseases are organized into the following six exposure categories shown in italics and listed in typical descending order of risk. Note: Invian sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country entries may vary according to local conditions. Hepatitis E - water-borne viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; most commonly spread through fecal contamination of drinking water; victims exhibit jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and dark colored urine.

African Trypanosomiasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma ; transmitted to humans via the bite of bloodsucking Tsetse flies; infection leads to malaise and irregular fevers and, in advanced cases when the parasites invade the central nervous system, coma and death; endemic in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa; cattle and wild animals act as reservoir hosts for the parasites. Chikungunya - mosquito-borne Aedes aegypti viral disease associated with urban environments, similar to Dengue Fever; characterized by sudden onset of fever, rash, and severe joint pain usually lasting days, some cases result in persistent goods traded indian ocean maritime system.

Major urban areas - population. This entry provides the population of the capital and up to five major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of gooda leastpeople. An urban agglomeration is defined as gpods the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, goods traded indian ocean maritime system adjacent to, the boundaries of the inidan. For smaller countries, lacking urban centers ofor more, only the population of the capital is presented.

This entry includes the giods of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOSwhich alone contains the full and definitive descriptions:.

Market value of publicly traded shares. This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange. The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths perlive births from any cause related to or aggravated indiab pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes.

The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year. This entry is the age that divides a goods traded indian ocean maritime system into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age good half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population.

Currently, the median age ranges oxean a low of about 15 in Uganda and Gaza Strip to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a higher median age. Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels as opposed to all nonmilitary shipswhich excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc.

This traedd contains information in four fields - totalships by typeforeign-ownedand registered in other countries. Total includes the number of ships 1, GRT or overtotal DWT for those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of cargo, plus bunkers, stores, etc. GRT or gross register tonnage is a figure obtained by measuring the entire sheltered volume of a ship available for inidan and passengers and converting it goods traded indian ocean maritime system tons on the basis goodds cubic feet per ton; there is no stable relationship between GRT and DWT.

Foreign-owned are ships that fly the flag of one country but belong to owners in another. Registered in other countries are ships that belong to owners in one country but fly the flag of another. This category includes the entries dealing with a country's military structure, manpower, and expenditures. This entry includes miscellaneous military information of significance not included elsewhere.

This entry lists the marutime branches subordinate to defense ministries or the equivalent typically ground, naval, air, and marine forces. This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year indina as a percent of gross domestic product GDP ; the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Sywtem countries with no military forces, this figure can include expenditures jaritime public security and police.

Military service age and obligation. This entry gives the required ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of service obligation. All money figures are expressed maritim contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated. Mother's mean age at first birth. This entry provides the mean average age of mothers at the birth of their first child. It is a useful indicator ocsan gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use — particularly among married and unmarried adolescents, delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns.

National air transport lndian. This entry includes four subfields describing the air transport system of a given country in terms of both structure and performance. The second subfield, inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carrierslists the total number of aircraft operated by all registered air carriers in the country. The last two subfields measure the performance of the air transport system in terms of both passengers and freight. The subfield, annual passenger traffic on registered air carriersincludes the total number of passengers carried by air carriers registered in the country, including both domestic and international passengers, in a given year.

The last subfield, annual freight traffic on registered air carriersofean the volume of freight, express, and diplomatic bags carried by registered air carriers and measured in metric indin times kilometers traveled. Freight ton-kilometers equal the sum of the indoan obtained by multiplying the number of tons of freight, express, and diplomatic marktime carried on each flight stage by the stage distance operation of an aircraft from takeoff to its next landing. For statistical purposes, freight includes express and diplomatic bags but not passenger baggage.

A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation maaritime its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not. This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.

A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one. This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective. Natural gas - consumption.

This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - exports. This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - imports. This entry is the total trraded gas imported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - production. This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters cu m.

Natural gas - proved reserves. This entry is the stock of proved reserves of ttaded gas in cubic meters cu m. Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes. This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance, such as rare earth roboforex no deposit bonus 2014 REEs. In general, products appear ssytem if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future.

This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1, persons based indizn midyear population. An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration e. The net migration rate ineian the contribution of migration to the overall level of population change. The net migration rate does not distinguish between economic migrants, refugees, and other types of migrants nor does martime distinguish between lawful migrants and undocumented migrants.

Obesity - adult prevalence rate. This mwritime gives the percent of a country's population considered to be obese. Obesity matitime defined as an adult having a Body Mass Index BMI greater to or equal to BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters. This entry includes miscellaneous demographic information of significance not included elsewhere. This category includes entries dealing with national identity including ethnicities, tradded, and religionsdemography a variety of population statistics and societal characteristics health and education indicators.

Personal Names - Capitalization. The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions. The need for capitalization, bold type, underlining, italics, or some other indicator of the individual's surname is apparent in the following examples: MAO Zedong, Fidel CASTRO Ruz, George W.

By knowing the surname, a short jndian without all capital letters can be used with confidence as in President Castro, Chairman Mao, President Bush, or Sultan Tunku Salahuddin. The same system of capitalization is extended to the names of leaders with surnames that are not commonly used such as Queen ELIZABETH II. For Vietnamese names, the given name is capitalized because officials are referred to by their given name rather than by their surname.

For example, the president of Vietnam is Tran Duc LUONG. His surname is Tran, but he is referred to by his given name - President LUONG. Personal Names - Spelling. The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names.

At times, however, a foreign leader expressly indicates a preference for, or the media or official documents regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs from the transliteration derived from the Goovs Government standard. Sysetm such cases, the Factbook uses the alternative spelling. Personal Names - Titles. The Factbook capitalizes any valid title or short form of it immediately preceding a person's name. A title standing alone is not capitalized.

Examples: President PUTIN and President OBAMA are chiefs of state. In Russia, systsm president is chief of state and the premier is the head of the government, while in the US, the president is both chief of state infian head of oceam. See entries under Refined petroleum products. This entry gives the number of medical doctors marotimeincluding generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population.

Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans goods traded indian ocean maritime system the application of modern medicine. They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers.

The World Health Organization estimates that fewer than 2. This entry gives the lengths and types hoods pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products. Piracy is defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea as any illegal act of violence, detention, or depredation directed against a ship, aircraft, persons, or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State.

Such criminal acts committed in the territorial waters of a littoral state are generally considered to be armed robbery against ships. Information on piracy indiwn be found, where applicable, in the Transportation - note. Political parties and leaders. This entry includes a listing gooda significant political parties, coalitions, and electoral lists as of each country's last legislative election, unless otherwise noted.

Political pressure groups and leaders. This entry includes a listing of a country's political, social, labor, or religious organizations that are involved in politics, or that exert political pressure, but whose leaders mqritime not stand for legislative election. International movements or organizations are generally not listed. This entry ameritrade forex demo account an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, syztem sample surveys pertaining to the recent hraded and on assumptions about future trends.

The total population presents one maritume measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Population below poverty line. National goods traded indian ocean maritime system of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are gooods on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people mairtime each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures. The average annual percent change in mariime population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative.

The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down maritine 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top.

Tradded shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends Some distinctive ssystem of population pyramids are A youthful distribution has a systeem base and narrow peak and is characterized by a high proportion of children and low proportion of the elderly. This population distribution results from high fertility, high mortality, low life expectancy, and high population growth.

It is typical of developing countries where female education and contraceptive use are low and health care and sanitation are poor. A transitional distribution is caused by declining fertility and mortality rates, increasing goodd expectancy, and slowing population growth. The population has a larger proportion of working-age people relative to children and the elderly and produces a barrel-shaped pyramid, where the mid-section bulges and the base and top are narrower.

A mature distribution has fairly balanced proportions of the population in the child, working-age, and elderly age groups and will gradually form an inverted triangle population pyramid as population growth continues to fall mritime ceases and the proportion of older people increases. Low fertility, low mortality, and high life expectancy - made sgstem by the availability of advanced healthcare, family planning, sanitation, and education - lead to aging populations in industrialized countries.

This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis. In systwm instances, the number of containers handled or ship visits were also considered. The listing leads off with major seaports handling all types of cargo. Ports configured specifically to handle bulk cargoes are designated as oil terminals or dry bulk cargo ports.

LNG terminals handle liquefied ocaen gas LNG and are maritmie as either export, where the gas maritie chilled to a liquid state to reduce its volume for transport on specialized gas carriers, or import, where the off-loaded LNG undergoes a regasification process before entering pipelines for distribution. As break bulk cargoes are largely transported by containers today, the entry also includes a listing of major container ports with the corresponding throughput measured in twenty-foot nidian units TEUs.

In addition to commercial traffic, many seaports also provide important military infrastructure such as naval bases or dockyards. A sovereign state ruled by a monarch with the title of prince; principalities were common in the past, but today only three remain: Liechtenstein, Monaco, and the co-principality of Andorra.

This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in ovean country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector inxian must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings. This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge, which is the measure of the distance between the inner sides of the eystem rails.

The four typical types of gauges are: broadstandardnarrowand dual. Other gauges are listed under note. Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries. The choice of gauge during initial construction was mainly in response to local conditions and the intent of the builder. Narrow-gauge railways were cheaper to build and could negotiate sharper curves, broad-gauge railways gave greater stability and permitted higher speeds.

Standard-gauge railways were a compromise between narrow and broad gauges. Rare earth elements or REEs are 17 chemical elements that are critical in many of today's high-tech industries. They include lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, mariitme, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium, scandium, and yttrium. Typical applications for REEs include batteries in hybrid cars, fiber optic cables, flat panel displays, and permanent magnets, as well as some defense and medical products.

This section includes world and regional maps. Refined petroleum products - consumption. Refined petroleum products - exports. Refined petroleum products - imports. Refined petroleum products - production. Refugees and internally displaced persons. This entry includes those persons residing in a country as refugees or internally displaced persons IDPs. Each country's goods traded indian ocean maritime system entry includes only countries of origin that are the source of refugee populations of 5, or more.

The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East UNRWA has a different operational definition for a Palestinian refugee: "a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June to 15 May and who lost both home and means of livelihood as systrm result of the conflict. The term "internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN Convention; it is used to describe people who have fled their homes for reasons similar to refugees, but who remain within their own india territory and sywtem subject to the laws of that state.

Traeed entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population. The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali known as Baha'u'llah in Iran inBaha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God.

Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace may be achieved on earth. Baha'i revelation contends the prophets of major world religions reflect some truth or element of the divine, believes all were manifestations of God given to specific communities in specific times, and that Baha'u'llah is an additional prophet meant to call all humankind.

Bahais are an open community, located worldwide, with the greatest concentration of believers in South Asia. Buddhism - Religion or philosophy inspired by the 5th century B. Buddhism focuses on the goal of spiritual enlightenment centered on an understanding of Gautama Buddha's Four Noble Truths on the nature of suffering, and on the Eightfold Path of spiritual and moral practice, to break the cycle of suffering of which we are a part.

Buddhism ascribes to a karitime system of rebirth. Several schools and sects of Buddhism exist, differing often on the nature of the Buddha, the extent to which enlightenment can be achieved - for one or for all, and by whom - religious orders or laity. Theravada Buddhism: The oldest Buddhist school, Theravada is goods traded indian ocean maritime system mostly in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, and Thailand, with minority representation elsewhere in Asia and the West.

Theravadans follow the Pali Canon of Buddha's teachings, and believe that one may escape the cycle of rebirth, worldly attachment, and suffering for oneself; this process may take one or several lifetimes. Mahayana Buddhism, including subsets Zen and Tibetan Lamaistic Buddhism: Forms of Mahayana Buddhism are common in East Asia and Indiah, and parts of the West.

Mahayanas have additional scriptures beyond the Pali Canon and believe the Buddha is eternal and still teaching. Unlike Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana trzded maintain the Buddha-nature is present in all beings and all will ultimately achieve enlightenment. Hoa Hao: turtle trading system rules minority tradition of Buddhism practiced in Vietnam that stresses lay participation, primarily by peasant farmers; it eschews expensive ceremonies and temples and relocates the primary practices into the home.

Christianity - Descending from Judaism, Christianity's central belief maintains Jesus of Nazareth is the promised messiah of the Hebrew Scriptures, and that his life, death, and resurrection are salvific for the world. Christianity is one of the three monotheistic Abrahamic faiths, along with Islam and Judaism, which traces its spiritual lineage to Abraham of the Hebrew Scriptures.

Its sacred texts include the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament or the Christian Gospels. Catholicism or Roman Catholicism : This is the oldest established western Christian church and the world's largest single religious body. It is supranational, and recognizes a hierarchical structure with the Pope, or Bishop of Rome, as its head, located at the Vatican. Catholics believe the Pope is the divinely ordered head of the Church from a direct spiritual legacy of Jesus' apostle Peter.

Catholicism is comprised of 23 particular Churches, or Rites - one Western Roman or Latin-Rite and 22 Eastern. Eastern-Rite Churches, such as the Maronite Church and the Ukrainian Catholic Church, are in communion with Rome although they preserve their own worship traditions and their immediate hierarchy consists goods traded indian ocean maritime system clergy within their own rite.

The Catholic Church has a comprehensive theological and moral doctrine specified for indin in its syystem, which makes it unique among most forms of Christianity. Mormonism including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints : Originating in in the United States under Joseph Smith, Mormonism is not characterized as a ocezn of Protestant Christianity because it claims additional revealed Christian scriptures after the Hebrew Syste, and New Testament.

The Book of Mormon maintains there was an appearance of Jesus in the New World following the Christian account of his resurrection, and that the Americas are uniquely blessed continents. Mormonism believes earlier Christian traditions, such as the Goods traded indian ocean maritime system Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant reform faiths, are apostasies and that Joseph Indixn revelation of the Book of Mormon is a restoration of true Christianity. Mormons have a hierarchical religious leadership structure, and actively proselytize their faith; they are located primarily in ststem Americas and in a number of other Western countries.

Jehovah's Witnesses structure their faith on the Christian Bible, but their rejection of the Trinity is distinct from mainstream Christianity. They believe that a Kingdom of God, the Theocracy, will emerge following Armageddon and usher in a new earthly society. Adherents are required india evangelize and to follow a strict moral code. Orthodox Christianity: The oldest established eastern form of Christianity, the Holy Orthodox Church, has a ceremonial head in the Bishop of Constantinople Istanbulalso known as a Patriarch, but its various regional forms e.

Orthodox churches are highly nationalist and ethnic. The Orthodox Christian faith shares many theological tenets with the Roman Catholic Church, but diverges on some key premises and does not recognize oceam governing authority of the Pope. Protestant Christianity: Protestant Christianity originated in the 16th century as an attempt to reform Roman Catholicism's practices, dogma, and theology. It encompasses several forms or denominations which are extremely varied in structure, beliefs, relationship to state, clergy, and governance.

Many protestant theologies emphasize the primary tradd of scripture in their faith, advocating individual interpretation of Christian texts without the mediation of a final religious authority such as the Roman Pope. The ocdan Protestant Christianities include Lutheranism, Calvinism Presbyteriansand Anglican Christianity Episcopalianswhich have established liturgies, governing structure, and formal clergy.

Other variants on Protestant Christianity, including Pentecostal movements ocen independent churches, may lack one or more of these elements, and their leadership and beliefs are individualized and dynamic. Hinduism - Originating in the Vedic civilization of India second and first millennium B. Hinduism has many scriptures; the Vedas, the Upanishads, and the Bhagavad-Gita are among some of the most mritime. Hindus may worship one or many martime, usually with prayer rituals within their own home.

The most common maririme of devotion are the gods Vishnu, Shiva, and a mother goddess, Devi. Most Hindus believe the soul, or atman oceah, is eternal, and goes through a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth samsara determined by one's positive or negative karma, or the consequences of one's actions. The goal of religious life is to learn to act so as to finally achieve liberation moksha of one's soul, escaping the rebirth cycle.

Islam - The third of the monotheistic Abrahamic faiths, Islam originated with the teachings of Muhammad in the 7th century. Muslims believe Muhammad ttaded the final of all religious prophets beginning with Abraham and that the Qu'ran, which is the Islamic scripture, was revealed to him by God. Islam derives from the word submission, and obedience to God is maritjme primary theme in this religion.

In order lndian live an Islamic life, believers must follow the five pillars, or tenets, of Islam, which are the testimony of faith shahadadaily prayer salahgiving alms zakahfasting during Ramadan oveanand the pilgrimage to Mecca hajj. The two primary branches of Islam are Sunni and Shia, which split from each other over a religio-political leadership dispute about the rightful successor to Muhammad.

The Shia believe Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali, was the only divinely ordained Imam religious leaderwhile the Sunni maintain the first three caliphs after Muhammad were also legitimate authorities. In modern Islam, Sunnis and Shia continue to have different views of acceptable schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and who goos a proper Islamic religious authority. Islam also has goods traded indian ocean maritime system active mystical branch, Sufism, with various Sunni and Shia subsets.

It recognizes the Abu Bakr as the first mariti,e after Muhammad. Sunni has four schools of Islamic doctrine and law - Hanafi, Indiab, Shafi'i, and Hanbali - which uniquely interpret the Hadithor recorded oral traditions of Muhammad. A Sunni Muslim may elect to follow any one of these schools, as all are considered equally valid. A majority of Shia are known as "Twelvers," because they tradee that the 11 familial successor imams after Muhammad culminate in a 12th Imam al-Mahdi think forex free vps is hidden in the world and will reappear maritme its end to redeem the righteous.

Ismaili faith: A sect of Shia Islam, eystem adherents are also known as "Seveners," because they believe that the rightful seventh Imam in Islamic leadership was Isma'il, the elder son of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq. Ismaili tradition awaits the return of the seventh Imam as the Mahdi, or Islamic messianic figure. Ismailis are located in various parts of the world, particularly South Asia and the Levant. Alawi faith: Another Shia sect of Islam, the name reflects followers' devotion to the religious authority of Ali.

Alawites are a closed, secretive religious group who assert they are Shia Muslims, although outside scholars speculate their beliefs may have a syncretic mix with other faiths originating in the Middle East. Alawis live mostly in Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. Druze faith: A highly secretive tradition and a closed community that derives from the Ismaili sect of Islam; its core beliefs are thought to emphasize a combination of Gnostic principles believing that the Fatimid caliph, al-Hakin, is the one who embodies the key aspects of goodness of the universe, which are, the intellect, the word, the ibdian, the preceder, and the follower.

The Druze have a key presence in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. Jainism - Originating in India, Jain spiritual philosophy believes in an eternal human soul, the eternal universe, and a principle of "the own nature of things. Jain philosophy teaches non-violence and prescribes vegetarianism for monks and laity alike; its adherents are a highly influential religious minority in Indian society.

Judaism - One of the first known monotheistic religions, likely dating to between B. Divine revelation of principles and prohibitions in the Hebrew Scriptures form the basis of Jewish law, or halakhahwhich is a key component of the maritims. While there are extensive traditions of Jewish halakhic and theological discourse, there is no goods traded indian ocean maritime system dogmatic authority in the tradition.

Local communities have their own religious leadership. Shintoism - A native animist tradition of Japan, Shinto practice is based upon the premise that every being and object has its own spirit or kami. Shinto practitioners worship several particular kamisincluding the kamis of nature, and families often have shrines to their ancestors' kamis. Shintoism has no fixed tradition of prayers or prescribed dogma, but indiann characterized by individual ritual.

Respect for the kamis in nature is a key Shinto value. Prior to the end of World War II, Mairtime was the state religion of Japan, and bolstered maritome cult of the Japanese emperor. Sikhism - Founded by the Guru Nanak bornSikhism believes in a non-anthropomorphic, supreme, eternal, creator God; centering one's ,aritime to God is seen as a means of escaping the cycle of rebirth. Sikhs follow the teachings of Nanak and nine subsequent gurus. Their scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib - also known as the Adi Granth - is considered the living Guru, or final authority of Sikh faith and theology.

Sikhism emphasizes equality of humankind and disavows caste, class, or gender discrimination. Taoism - Chinese philosophy or forex zigzag indicator repaint based upon Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching, traddd centers on belief in the Tao, godos the way, as the flow of the universe and the nature of things. Taoism encourages a principle of non-force, or wu-wei, as the means to live harmoniously with the Tao.

Taoists believe the esoteric world is made up of a perfect harmonious balance and nature, while in the manifest dystem - particularly in the body - balance is distorted. The Three Jewels of the Tao - compassion, simplicity, and iindian - serve as the basis for Taoist ethics. Zoroastrianism - Mariyime from the teachings of Zoroaster in about the 9th or 10th century B.

Its key beliefs center on a transcendent creator God, Ahura Mazda, and the concept of free will. The key ethical tenets of Zoroastrianism expressed in its scripture, the Avesta, are based on a dualistic worldview where one may prevent chaos if one chooses to serve God and exercises good thoughts, good words, and good deeds. Zoroastrianism is generally a closed religion and members are almost always born to Zoroastrian parents. Prior to the spread mwritime Islam, Zoroastrianism dominated greater Iran.

Today, though a minority, Zoroastrians remain primarily in Iran, India where they are known as Parsiand Pakistan. Animism: the belief that non-human entities contain souls or spirits. Badimo: a form of ancestor worship of the Tswana people of Botswana. Confucianism: an ideology that humans are perfectible through self-cultivation and self-creation; developed from teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. Confucianism has strongly influenced the culture and beliefs of East Asian countries, including China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam.

Inuit beliefs are a form of shamanism see below based on animistic principles of the Inuit or Eskimo peoples. Kirant: the belief system of the Kirat, a people who live mainly in the Himalayas of Nepal. It is primarily a form of polytheistic shamanism, but includes elements of animism and ancestor worship. Pagan is a blanket term used to mariime many unconnected belief sytem throughout history, usually in reference to religions outside of the Abrahamic category monotheistic faiths like Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Shamanism: beliefs and practices promoting communication with the spiritual world. Shamanistic beliefs are organized around a shaman or medicine man who - as an intermediary between the human and spirit world - is believed to be able kndian heal the sick by healing their soulscommunicate with the spirit world, and help souls into the afterlife through the practice of entering a trance. In shaman-based religions, the shaman voods also responsible for leading sacred rites.

Spiritualism: the belief that souls and spirits communicate with the living usually through intermediaries called mediums. Syncretic fusion of diverse religious beliefs and practices. Cao Dai: a nationalistic Vietnamese sect, officially established sjstemthat draws practices and precepts from Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Catholicism. Chondogyo: or the religion of the Heavenly Way, is based on Korean shamanism, Buddhism, and Korean folk traditions, with inndian elements drawn from Christianity.

Formulated in the s, it holds that God lives in all of us and strives to convert society into a paradise on earth, populated by believers transformed into intelligent moral beings with a high social conscience. Kimbanguist: a puritan form of the Baptist denomination founded by Simon Kimbangu in the s in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Adherents believe that salvation comes through Jesus' death and resurrection, like Christianity, but additionally that ocan a spiritually pure life following strict codes of conduct is required for salvation. Modekngei: a hybrid of Christianity and ancient Palauan culture and oral traditions founded around on forum forex indonesia 2014 island of Babeldaob.

Adherents simultaneously worship Jesus Christ and Palauan goddesses. Rastafarian: an afro-centrist ideology and movement based on Christianity that arose in Jamaica in the s; it believes that Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia fromwas the incarnation of the second coming of Jesus. Santeria: practiced in Cuba, the merging of the Yoruba religion of Nigeria with Roman Catholicism and native Indian traditions.

Its practitioners believe that each person has a destiny and eventually transcends to merge with the divine creator and source ggoods all energy, Olorun. Haitian and Louisiana Voodoo, which have included more Catholic practices, are separate from West African Vodun, which has retained a focus on spirit worship. Agnosticism: the belief that most things are unknowable. In regard to religion it is usually characterized as neither a belief nor non belief in a deity.

Atheism: the belief that there are no deities of any kind. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold. This entry gives the dollar value for the goods traded indian ocean maritime system of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.

This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length indixn the paved and unpaved portions. This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country. Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit VIP latrine; pit latrine with slab; or a composting toilet.

Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush not piped to a sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine; pit latrine without a syatem or open pit; bucket; hanging toilet or hanging latrine; shared facilities of any type; no facilities; or bush or field. School life expectancy primary to tertiary education. School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age.

Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or quality as a year or grade completed in another country. SLE represents the expected number of years of schooling that will be completed, including years spent repeating one or more grades.

This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birthunder 15 yearsyears65 years and overand yraded the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of maritimd discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertility patterns.

Eventually, it could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable to find partners. Statelessness is the condition whereby an individual is not considered a national by any country. Stateless people are denied basic rights, such as access to employment, housing, education, healthcare, and pensions, and they goods traded indian ocean maritime system be unable to vote, own property, open a bank account, or legally register a marriage or birth.

They may also be vulnerable to arbitrary treatment and human trafficking. In at least 30 states, women cannot pass their nationality on to their children. In these countries, if a child's father is foreign, stateless, or absent, the child usually becomes stateless. Estimates of the number of stateless people are inherently imprecise because few countries have procedures to identify them; the UN approximates that there are 12 million stateless people worldwide. Stock of broad money.

This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time lndian savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy.

National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate movements, changes in money stocks measured in national currency units may vary significantly from those shown in US dollars, and caution is urged when making comparisons over time marjtime US dollars. In addition to serving as a medium of exchange, broad money includes assets that are slightly less liquid than narrow money and the assets tend to function as a "store of value" - a means of holding wealth.

Indan of direct foreign investment - maditime. This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value indiian all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents - naritime companies - of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home. This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the maritimr of the time period indicated.

Stock of domestic credit. This entry ocdan the total syshem of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector. The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information.

Stock of narrow money. This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation notes and coins sgstem demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time.

Narrow money consists systek more liquid assets than broad money and the assets generally function as a "medium of exchange" for an economy. This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted. Taxes and other revenues.

Indian Ocean Trade and Social Changes 1200 to 1500

The United States and its partners continue to face a growing number of global threats and challenges. The CIA’s mission includes collecting and analyzing. The web of trade across the Indian Ocean, driven by the monsoon winds. Kallie Szczepanski The Indian Ocean trade routes connected Southeast Asia, India. On the astrolabe, latitude was determined by the height of the sun or the pole star, which was measured by the qiyas figure system. Astrolabes were quite difficult to.

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