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Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics as well as criteria that dictate choices in use. Soil classification is a dynamic subject, from the structure of the system itself, to the definitions of classes, and finally in the application forex trading journal example the field.
Soil classification can be approached from the perspective of soil as a material and classificatiom as a resource. Engineers, typically geotechnical engineersclassify soils according to their engineering properties as they relate to use for foundation support or building material. Modern engineering classification systems are designed to allow an easy transition from field observations to basic predictions of soil engineering properties and behaviors.
The most common engineering classification system for soils in North America is the Unified Soil Classification System USCS. The USCS has three major classification groups: 1 coarse-grained soils e. The USCS further subdivides the three major soil classes for clarification. It distinguishes sands from gravels by grain size, and further classifying some as "well-graded" and the rest as "poorly-graded". Silts and clays are distinguished by the soils' Atterberg limitsand separates "high-plasticity" from "low-plasticity" soils as well.
Moderately organic soils are considered subdivisions of silts and clays, and are distinguished from inorganic soils by changes in their plasticity properties and Atterberg limits on drying. The European soil classification system ISO is very similar, differing primarily in coding and in us trademark classification system an "intermediate-plasticity" classification for silts and clays, and in minor details. Other engineering soil classification systems in the United States include the AASHTO Soil Classification Systemwhich classifies soils and aggregates relative to their suitability for pavement construction, and the Modified Burmister system, which works similarly to the USCS, but clasification more coding for various soil properties.
The USCS and additional engineering description is standardized in ASTM D us trademark classification system Differing concepts of pedogenesis, and differences in the significance of morphological features to various land uses can affect the classification approach. Despite these differences, in a well-constructed system, classification criteria group similar concepts so that interpretations do not vary widely. This is trademaark contrast to a technical system approach to soil classification, where soils are grouped according to their fitness for a specific use and their edaphic characteristics.
Systems have developed, such as Tracemark soil taxonomy and traemark World Reference Base for Soil Resourceswhich use taxonomic criteria involving soil morphology and laboratory tests to inform and refine hierarchical classes. Another approach is numerical classification, also called ordinationwhere soil individuals are grouped by us trademark classification system statistical methods such as cluster analysis.
This produces natural groupings without requiring any inference about soil genesis. In soil surveyas practiced in the United Statessoil classification usually means criteria based on soil morphology in addition to characteristics developed during soil formation. Criteria are designed to guide choices in land use and soil management.
As indicated, this is a hierarchical system that is a hybrid of both natural and objective criteria. USDA soil taxonomy provides the core criteria for differentiating soil map units. This is a substantial revision of the USDA soil taxonomy which was a strictly natural system. Soil taxonomy based soil map units are additionally sorted into classes based on technical classification systems. Land Capability Classeshydric soiland prime farmland are some examples. In addition to scientific soil classification systems, there are also vernacular soil classification systems.
Folk taxonomies have been used for millennia, while scientifically based systems are relatively recent developments. Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA requires the classification of soils to protect workers from injury when working in excavations and trenches. Such technical classifications are developed with specific applications in mind, such as soil-water relationships, land quality trademxrk or geotechnical engineering.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Soil science. Url last accessed Cranfield University, National Soil Resources Institute. Topics in soil science. Soil retrogression and degradation. Pore space in soil. FAO soil classification Unified Soil Smartoption binary options System. AASHTO Soil Classification System.
Canadian system us trademark classification system soil classification. List of vineyard soil types. Soil policy Victoria, Australia. International Union of Soil Sciences. Soil and Water Conservation Society. National Society of Consulting Soil Scientists. Soil Science Society of America. Australian Society of Soil Science Incorporated.
International Year of Soil. World Congress of Soil Science. Index of soil-related articles. List of soil scientists. Not grademark in Talk Contributions Create account Log in. Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store. Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Systdm link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page.
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The Nice Classification (NCL), established by the Nice Agreement (), is an international classification of goods and services applied for the registration of marks. cut down on the time and paperwork required to obtain a trademark in china. The Madrid System allows businesses to search and register trademarks and service marks in up to 92 countries.